Social anthropologist with more than 30 years of experience in social development and poverty reduction. Graduated from the LSE and conducted research and lectured in Venezuela before joining the United Nations in 1984. Worked in the Middle East and Asia and, after retiring from the UN in 2010, have continued to work as a social development and urban advisor based in Bangkok. During the last 20 years, my work has focused on the regional, national, and sub-national development of Southeast Asia. Areas of interest include urbanisation and citizenship, social protection and inequality, non-income poverty, participation, informality and livelihoods.